which的用法大全

1、在后置的非限制性定语从句中代替上文出现的事物或情况(单数或复数) 。

2、在问句中作为疑问代词,在名词从句中作为连接代词用,其含义为 “ 哪个、哪些 ” 。

3、如果非限制性定语从句的先行词不是指主句内容,而是指具体的人、时间、地点,则不 用 which 。

[解题过程 ] 这里主要讲解一下在定语从句中的用法:

一、关系代词 that 和 which 在定语从句中作主语和宾语,放在先行词和定语从句之间,起 联 系 作 用 。 指 物 时 , 一 般 情况 下 可 互 换 。 如 :Here is the pen that/which you lost yesterday.(that/which 指物作宾语 ) A plane is a machine that/which can fly.(that/which 指物,作 主语 ) He is the most careful boy that I know.(that 指人 , 作宾语 ) The man that works in this room is a chemist.(that 指人 , 作主语 )

二、 that,which 在从句中作主语时, 不能省略。 作宾语时在口语中和非正式问题中经常省略。 如上例 1 和中的 that,which 都可省略。

三、关系代词在主语从句中作主语时, 从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。 Wheat is a plant that/which is grown in the north of China.

四、在定语从句中,关系代词 that 和 which 指物时,一般没有区别,但下列几种情况中不 能互换:

只能用 that 的情况:

a) 先行词为 all,everything,nothing,anything,little 等不定代词时 (something 后也可用 which ) : Is there anything (that) I can do for you in town? That’s all (that) I know.

b) 先行词被序数词所修饰时:The first thing (that) we should do is to work out a plan.

c) 先行词被形容词最高级所修饰时:This is one of the most exciting football games (that) I have ever seen. The nanjing yangtse river bridge is the longest bridge (that) they have ever seen. d) 先行词 被 only,very,no,any,same,little,one of 等词所修饰时:This is the only thing (that) we can do now. He gave me the same pen (that) he borrowed from me. Do you have any books that were written by Lu Xun? This is the very book (that) I want to read.

e) 当先行词中既有人又有物时:The man and the car (that) you want to see are all here. 你相 见的人和车都在这里。

f) that 可指人, which 则不能:Who is the man that is reading the newspaper over there?

g) 在 “the time when” 等结构和某些时间状语中, when 常被 that 代替, 而且 that 往往省略: I may leave here any time I want to. During the time I was there I visited him twice.

h)way 后面可根由 that 引导的定语从句,但 that 一般都省略:That was the way she looked after us.

在下列情况中,只能用 which:

a) 放在介词后面做介词宾语时:This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion. 但是,如把介词放在从句的后部,这时 which 就可换为 that 并常省略。如上例 可改为:This is the question (that) we’ve had so much discussion about.

b) 在非限制性定语从句,无论指物指人,都不能用 that 。指物时,只能用 which 和其他关 系代词。如:All the books there,which have beautiful pictures in them,were written by him.

that与which的用法区别

that与which的用法区别

两者都可指物,常可互换。其区别主要在于:

1. 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用which:

The current, which is very rapid, makes the river dangerous.

He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like.

The London team, which played so well last season, has done badly this season.

2. 直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which:

She may be late, in which case we ought to wait for her.

The documents for which they were searching have been recovered. This morning some port wine came, for which I have to thank you.

注:有时“介词+which”引导的定语从句可以转换成“介词+which+不定式”结构:

He had only the long nights in which he could study. =He had only the long nights in which to study.

He had a couple of revolvers with which he could defend himself.= He had a couple of revolvers with which to defend himself.

3. 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用that:

All that she lacked was training.

Have you everything that you need?

The sleeping man’s subconscious mind retained everything that was said around him.

She would never do anything that was not approved of by her parents.

4. 当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that: This is the only example that I know.

Those are the very words that he used.。

5. 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that:

This is the best dictionary that I’ve ever used.

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan.

6. 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that:

China is not the country (that) it was.

7. 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that:

They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them.

8. 当要避免重复时:

Which is the course that we are to take?

that与who的用法区别

1. 两者均可指人,有时可互换(包括当先行词为 all, anyone, someone等,同时也包括先行词受the only等的修饰时):

All that [who] heard him were delighted. 所有听了他讲话的人都很高兴。 He is the only one among us that [who] knows Russian.他是我们中间唯一懂俄语的人。

Anyone who [that] is over sixteen is allowed in. 任何超过十六岁的人都允许进去。

It is impolite to turn your back on someone who [that] is speaking to you. 人家跟你说话,你把背朝人是不礼貌的。

2. 但是在下列情况,通常要用 that:

①当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时:

I made a speech on the men and things that I had seen abroad. 我就我在国外所见到的人和事作了报告。

②当先行词是who时(为避免重复):

Who was it that won the World Cup in 1982? 谁赢得了1982年的世界杯?

③当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时(可省略):

Tom is not the boy (that) he was. 汤姆这孩子已不是以前那个样子了。

3. 但是在下列情况,通常要用 who:(www.yygrammar.com)

当先行词为 those 且指人时,英语习惯上要用 who 来引导定语从句。如: Those who do not wish to go need not go. 不愿去的人不需要去。

Those who couldn’t walk were carried on stretchers. 那些不能走的人都用担架抬着。

It is said that those who eat the most are the least healthy. 据说吃得最多的人身体最差。

Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in. 只有那些预先订票的人可以进去。

The plan was supported by those who wished to listen to more good English. 这计划受到想多听好英语的人的支持。

Let us spend a few moments in silence so that / in order that we remember those who died to preserve our freedom. 让我们默哀片刻,以缅怀那些为维护我们的自由而牺牲了的人们。

注:偶尔也可见到在 who 之后用 that 引导定语从句的用例,但相当少见。如:

The danger is that people who pay their bills on time will be lumped in with those that don’t. 危险的是那些及时付账的人将会同那些不及时付账的人混在一起。(摘自《朗文当代英语辞典》2003年第4版) 高中英语辅导:牵手高考考题,复习定语从句

http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/06/24 16:44 英语辅导报

一、考查关系词的指代及其在从句中所作的语法成分

定语从句要由关系词来引导,关系词分为关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有:who, whose, whom, that, which 等;关系副词有:when,where,why等。除that只引导限定性定语从句外,其余的关系词既可以引导限定性定语从句,也可以引导非限定性定语从句。

要点提示:要正确使用关系词,就须将两个方面结合起来考虑:一方面是看看关系词所指代的先行词的类属;另一方面是准确分析关系词在定语从句中所作的句子成分。若指人,作主语用who,作宾语用whom(可以省略),作定语用whose(还可指物);若指物且作主语或宾语,则用which(在非限定性定语从句中,也可指代一个情形,即主句全部内容。无论作主语还是作宾语,均不可省略)或that(还能指人,作宾语时,可以省略);作状语指时间用when,指地点用where,指原因用why等。

考题:

1.His parents wouldn't let him marry anyone _______ family was poor. (MET'88)

A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose

2.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, _______ of course, made the others unhappy. (NMET2000)

A.who B.which C.this D.what

3.After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a child. (NMET'96)

A.which B.where C.that D.when

4.Carol said the work would be done by October, _______ personally I doubt very much.(NMET'99)

A.it B.that C.when D.which

5.I also enjoyed the evenings when we spent together. (NMET'95短文改错)

答案及简析:

1.答案为D。此处关系词指代的是anyone,而且作从句中的定语。

2.答案为B。该题旨在考查非限定性定语从句的引导词,只能在A,B之间选择,可是这里并未指人,而是指主句所谈情况,为此,只能选B。

3.答案为B。关系词指代地点the small town,同时在定语从句中充当状语。

4.答案为D。不可认为指代时间by October而误选C。其实,稍加分析就可清楚关系词指代的是主句全部内容且作doubt的宾语而非状语。

5.此题先行词是表时间的名词evenings,但在从句中用作spent的宾语而不是状语,故须将when改为that/which或去掉when。

二、 考查关系词的搭配方式

关系词的搭配方式主要是指as及作提前介词宾语的which和whom的搭配方式。

(一)as的搭配方式

要点提示:1. 在限定性定语从句中,常见的搭配方式有:the same...as,as...as,not so / as...as, such...as 等。

2.在非限定性定语从句中,常见的搭配方式有:as we all know(=as is known to us all),as is said(reported,mentioned,etc.)above,as it is等,可置于句首、句中或句末。

考题:

_______ is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month.(NMET2001)

A. It B. As C. That D. What

答案与简析:答案为B.显而易见,为一固定搭配方式.As引导的是非限定性定语从句。

(二)which和whom的搭配方式

要点提示:1.多用于限定性定语从句中,作提前介词的宾语,即介词+which/whom.介词的使用要依据定语从句中动词短语的构成方式而定。

2.在作从句主语时,往往套用:名词(代词、数词等)+of+which/whom.多见于非限定性定语从句中。

考题:

1.In the dark street,there wasn't a single person _______ she could turn for help. (NMET'92)

A.to whom B.who C.from whom D.that

2.He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows,most of _______ hadn't been cleaned for at least a year. (MET'90)

A.these B.those C.that D.which

3.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ______ was very reasonable. (2000上海)

A.which price

B.the price of which

C.its price

D.the price of whose

答案与简析:

1.答案为A。turn to sb. for help 是一固定搭配方式。

2.答案为D。which指代ten windows且作of的宾语,that不能用在非限定性定语从句中,也不能与介词一起提前作宾语。

3.答案为B。which指代the ancient Chinese vase,与the price构成所属关系。

三、考查使用that的情况及关系词的省略现象

(一)只能使用that的情况

要点提示:

1.由不定代词anything,nothing,everything,all, one, little,few,much等充当先行词时;

2. 当先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时;

3.当先行词被no,the same,the very, the only等修饰时;

4. 当先行词既指人又指物时;

5. 主句是以who开头的疑问句时.

考题:

All _______ is needed is a supply of oil. (MET'89)

A.the thing B.that C.what D.which

答案与简析:答案为B,因为先行词是由不定代词all充当的。

(二)关系词的省略现象

要点提示:除作宾语的关系代词whom,which,that可以省略外,先行词为way,time等时,可将that省略,其中way还可以由in which来引导。

考题:

I don't like______you speak to her.(1993上海)

A.the way

B.the way in that

C.the way which

D.the way of which

答案与简析:答案为A.根据句意:我并不喜欢你对她讲话的方式,理应选the way,其后省去了关系代词that。

(文/李英旭; 《英语通》高二版 03~04学年度第4期;版权归英语辅导报社所有,独家网络合作伙伴新浪教育,未经许可,不得以任何形式进行转载。)

介词加which的用法

1)介词与先行词的习惯搭配

There is no way in which it could be brought back to the earth. (SEFC 2A L . 55) (in 与 way 是习惯搭配)

2)介词与定语从句中的动词,形容词的习惯搭配

These are the wires with which different machines are connected. (be connected with是习惯搭配)

The author with whom all of us are familiar will visit our compa-ny. (be familiar with是习惯搭配)

3)同形的先行词,或定语从句中的动词,形容词表示不同的含义时,要根据其 含义选用不同的介词。

I can't remember the age at which he won the prize.

That is the age in which people live in peace and happiness.

age 在前句中意为“年岁” ,与 at 搭配;在后句中意为“时期” ,与 in搭配。

4) 复杂介词须保持其完整形式, 常见的复杂介词有 on the top of , in the middle of , in front of, in spite of, at the back of, because of等。

We took a photo of rocket , the length of which was about 30me- tres . (SEFC 2A L. 55)

Sound is a tool by means of which people communicate with each other. They marched through the square , in the middle of which stood a monument .

5)短语动词中的介词不可与动词分开提至关系代词前。常见的短语动词有 listen to , look at , depend on , pay attention to , take care of , look into , break into, get rid of, take part in, make use of, take hold of, catch hold of , catch up with , get along with , look forward to 等。 此时可用 which , who , whom 或 that ,也可将他们省略。

(误) This is the girl of whom he will take care.

(正) This is the girl whom he will take careof.

6)当介词与定语从句中的动词或形容词联系紧密(但不是短语动词)时,介词 也可放在动词或形容词的后面。但当介词与从句中的动词或形容词联系不紧密

时,则需将介词置于关系代词前。比较:

The space station which we drove to was in the desert. (SEFC 2A L. 55) I'll never forget the day in which I joined the Party.

后句中若置于句尾则有“孤零零”之感,这时宜将介词置于关系代词前;而前句 中的 to 则可后置。

5.关系代词的选择

用于介词后的关系代词只有 which , whom ,前者指物,后者指人。

There are many research stations on the earth in which outer space is studied . (SEFC 2A L. 55) (which 指代 research stations)

We questioned the pilot , from whom we learnt that no other planes had been seen . (SEFC 2A L. 55) (whom 指代 the pilot)

介词+which /whom的用法

三)介词+which /whom 的用法

1.语法作用:“介词+关系代词”在从句中主要起关系副词的作用,即在定语从 句中充当状语:

(1)表示地点,时间和原因的“介词+which ”分别相当于 where, when , why 。

I have found the book in which the names of all the early satellites are mentioned . (SEFC 2A L . 55) (=I have found the book . The names of all the early satellites are mentioned in it. )

The earth on which /where we live is a planet.

I'll never forget the day on which /when I joined the League.

I know a wood in which /where you can find roses.

Is there any reason for which /why you should have a holiday?

(2) way 后常用 that 代替 in which,也可省略 that 。

I really don't like the way that he talks.

That was the way in which the old lady looked after us.

Do it the way I showed you.

2. “ of +which ”起形容词的作用,相当于 whose (用来指物) ,其词序通常是 “ n .+of which” 。

They live in a house whose door /the door of which opens to the south.

He's written a book whose name /the name of which I've com- pletely forgotten .

3.可引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

There is a rocket by which the direction of the satellite can be changed . (SEFC 2A L. 55)

We carefully studied the photos, in which we could see signs of plant disease . (SEFC 2A L. 55)

4.介词的选择(选择介词时须考虑下列情况)

1)介词与先行词的习惯搭配

There is no way in which it could be brought back to the earth. (SEFC 2A L . 55) (in 与 way 是习惯搭配)

2)介词与定语从句中的动词,形容词的习惯搭配

These are the wires with which different machines are connected. (be connected with是习惯搭配)

The author with whom all of us are familiar will visit our compa-ny. (be familiar with是习惯搭配)

3)同形的先行词,或定语从句中的动词,形容词表示不同的含义时,要根据其 含义选用不同的介词。

I can't remember the age at which he won the prize.

That is the age in which people live in peace and happiness.

age 在前句中意为“年岁” ,与 at 搭配;在后句中意为“时期” ,与 in搭配。

4) 复杂介词须保持其完整形式, 常见的复杂介词有 on the top of , in the middle of , in front of, in spite of, at the back of, because of等。

We took a photo of rocket , the length of which was about 30me- tres . (SEFC 2A L. 55)

Sound is a tool by means of which people communicate with each other. They marched through the square , in the middle of which stood a monument .

5)短语动词中的介词不可与动词分开提至关系代词前。常见的短语动词有 listen to , look at , depend on , pay attention to , take care of , look into , break into, get rid of, take part in, make use of, take hold of, catch hold of , catch up with , get along with , look forward to 等。 此时可用 which , who , whom 或 that ,也可将他们省略。

(误) This is the girl of whom he will take care.

(正) This is the girl whom he will take careof.

6)当介词与定语从句中的动词或形容词联系紧密(但不是短语动词)时,介词 也可放在动词或形容词的后面。但当介词与从句中的动词或形容词联系不紧密

时,则需将介词置于关系代词前。比较:

The space station which we drove to was in the desert. (SEFC 2A L. 55) I'll never forget the day in which I joined the Party.

后句中若置于句尾则有“孤零零”之感,这时宜将介词置于关系代词前;而前句 中的 to 则可后置。

5.关系代词的选择

用于介词后的关系代词只有 which , whom ,前者指物,后者指人。

There are many research stations on the earth in which outer space is studied . (SEFC 2A L. 55) (which 指代 research stations)

We questioned the pilot , from whom we learnt that no other planes had been seen . (SEFC 2A L. 55) (whom 指代 the pilot)

that与which的用法区别

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that 与 which 的用法区别

两者都可指物,常可互换。其区别主要在于:

1. 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用 which :

The current, which is very rapid, makes the river dangerous. 水流湍急,使这条河很危险。

He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like. 他得在星期天工作,他是不喜欢这样的。

The London team, which played so well last season, has done badly this season. 伦敦队上一个季度打得很好,这个季度却打 得很差。

2. 直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用 which :

She may be late, in which case we ought to wait for her. 她可能晚到,那样我们就要等等她。

The documents for which they were searching have been recovered. 他们找寻的文件已找到了。

This morning some port wine came, for which I have to thank you. 今天早上送来一些波尔图葡萄酒,为此我得向你道谢。 注:有时“介词+which”引导的定语从句可以转换成“介词 +which+不定式”结构:

He had only the long nights in which he could study. =He had only the long nights in which to study. 他只有漫漫长夜可 用来学习。

He had a couple of revolvers with which he could defend himself.= He had a couple of revolvers with which to defend himself. 他只有一两把手枪用来自卫。

3. 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时 much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用 that :

All that she lacked was training. 她缺的只是训练。

Have you everything that you need? 你需要的东西都有了吗 ?

The sleeping man’s subconscious mind retained everything that was said around him. 这位酣睡的人头脑的下意识能记住他 周围的人说的话。

She would never do anything that was not approved of by her parents. 她父母不赞同的事她绝不会做。

4. 当先行词有 the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用 that :

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

外教一对一 http://www.yangjiajiao.com Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。

5. 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词 (包括 last, next等 ) 等修饰时,通常用 that :

This is the best dictionary that I’ve ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

6. 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用 that :

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。

7. 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用 that :

They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。

8. 当要避免重复时:

Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程 ?

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